我的英文日記
My English Journals

巴羅克時期之前的樂壇的情況
The music world before the Baroque Period

 

 

 

 

 

Fri. 1st Mar., 1991. 17℃, Fine.

I have started reviewing music history for the coming mid-term examination today.

The music of Renaissance (文藝復興) was mainly dominated by three composers: Dufay, Josquin and Moteverdi.

Continuing Dunstable's way, Dufay realized the possibilities for organizing gigantic musical structures around borrowed melodies. His consummate (完美無缺的) skills in using the mellifluous (甜美的) English sonorities (響亮) bespoke (有規律的) a genuinely (真正地) new attitude (見解) towards the art of music.

And then Josquin amalgamated (合併) the Italianate (意大利的) and Netherlandish (荷蘭的) traits (特徵) into a highly supple (輕盈) and expressive (富表達力的) texture (質地) that really highlighted (突出) the music of Renaissance.

Between Dufay and Josquin, there was an important composer called Ockeghem who wrote very long musical phrases (樂句) consisting (包含) over twenty bars. This kind of music was mainly polyphonic (複音音樂) of which the texts (歌詞) could not be clearly heard and later was overcome (蓋過) by the word-painting technique (突出歌詞的技巧) in which short phrases and homophonic (單音音樂) texture were used to favor the conveying of the text (有利於歌詞的傳達). Josquin was the man who achieved (成就) this goal.

Later on, Monteverdi invented (發明) the new technique, Basso Continuo (一種作曲的方法), which led music enter a new era (帶領音樂進入一個新時代), the Baroque Period (巴羅克時期).

For this mid-term examination, we shall have things up to Josquin's time only, but there are many books for me to read already.

 



文藝復興時期的音樂是豐滿協和的
The Music of Renaissance was full and harmonious

Sat. 2nd Mar., 1991. 16. Cloudy.

The Englishmen were particularly fond of (喜歡) full musical sounds. They had 3rd (三度) instead of the solemn (神聖的) 5th (五度) and 4th (四度) that prevailed (流行) in France and Italy in the Middle Ages.

Until the 14th century, John Dunstable, the most outstanding English Composer, extended the English favorite into full triadic sounds (豐滿的三和弦音響), resulting an extremely mellifluous sonority. Within that chordal relationship (和弦性的關係), there was a distinctive idea of Functional Harmony (功能性的和聲) growing out of the chords grouped around the tonic (主和弦) and dominant triads (附屬和弦).

John Dunstable had spent some time in Burgundy and exerted (使出) a strong influence on members of the Burgundian School (勃艮第學派), especially Dufay, who was a major figure (人物) in the music of Renaissance

I love this kind of full and harmonious music also (豐滿協和的音樂).


杜飛的音樂風格
The music style of Dufay

Sun. 3rd Mar., 1991. 15. Cloudy.

I have just carefully studied Dufay's chanson (歌曲), Adicu A'mour, which is said to be his late miniature masterpiece having few equals in the early 15th century.

It is in Rondeau form (圓舞曲式), ABaAabAB. Dufay uses different kinds of inharmonic (不協調的) tones in this song, such as the cambiata "作曲法", suspensions "作曲法" and passing notes "作曲法. He cadences "作曲法" the song in the Landini-sixth "作曲法" at the end. Imitations (模仿) at a fifth below and at the octave (八度) are obvious (明顯的) and effective (有效果的), especially at the beginning of section B when voices from low to high come in respectively at different octaves.

The innovation (革新) of Dufay shown here is the conscious (有意識的) attempt of tonal planning "作曲法" in which he arranges the phrase (樂句) ends in such a way that the music is centered around the tonic (主調的) and dominant (屬性的) chord.

That's why this piece is so highly appreciated.

 



一箭二鳥
Killing two birds with an arrow

Mon. 4th Mar., 1991. 16. Cloudy.

My English lecturer Mrs Bond may find that my journals of these days are a bit difficult to understand because I write about music history.

Mid-term examinations are near and I have started reviewing. It's a good way to fix things in my mind if I summarize them after reading. This may be in Chinese called "Killing two birds with an arrow" (一石二鳥), by which on the one hand I can prepare for my examination and on the other can get my journals done without sparing time at this busy moment.

In fact there was nothing important enough to attract my attention after the Middle East War. The applying day of the British Nationality Scheme has just been closed and the District Board election was held yesterday.

All the above things are not so notable (受注意) at this hour because (因為) I have to concentrate (集中精神) on my books.

 



古時的音樂歷史都幾難讀
Early music history is quite difficult to study

Tues. 5th Mar., 1991. 18. Fine .

I must try to figure out the differences between Frottole and Chanson because Dr Olsen might set an essay question on these two genres (種類) of composition in my music history examination.

Both of them are secular (神聖在教堂的) songs of the Renaissance; but each was popular in various parts of Europe.

Frottole are Italian strophic songs (意大利的一節歌) with poems set syllabically (音節地) to music in four parts. They have marked rhythmic patterns and are in homophonic style with the melody in the top voice.

Frottole is a loose term which embraces (包含) many subtypes (細分種類), some of them in form fixes, such as Barzettela, Capitolo, Terza Rima, Strambotto, and others, for example, Canzonc, are quite free in form.

Chansons resemble in many respects of the Italian Frottole, but with French text.



Hi-Fi 技術進步驚人
Hi-Fi technology advances so quickly

Wed. 6th Mar., 1991. 19. Fine.

Hi-Fi technology advances so quickly.

A few years ago, we had tape walkman. It was proud and a great enjoyment to own one.

Just now I saw a friend of mine carrying a CD walkman. He let me listen to some songs. I was surprised by the high quality sound. It has a lovely shape and a smart look and easy to control. Songs on the disk can be played at any order and any- bit can be repeated at one's discretion (隨意) by only a touch.

The tape walkman, even the most new fashioned one, are very backward compared with CD walkman. It is difficult to find a song accurately in the middle- of the tape.

I think this kind of music players will soon be weeded out (淘汰) as tapes are gradually replaced by compact disks.



現在越努力,考完試後越快樂
The harder I study now, the happier I shall be when examinations are over

Thurs. 7th Mar., 1991. 19. Sunny.

I haven't gone to the cinema for a long time. How wonderful it would if I could go to see a movie at once.

Human being are bounded by obligations (受責任所限). We can't do whatever we want without regarding the result (忽視後果).

There will be two examinations for me next Monday, so I can't go for any recreation (娛樂) at the moment.

I promised myself to go to movies and window-shopping immediately after the examinations. I have chosen a movie already.

The harder I study now, the happier I shall be when examinations are over.

I can imagine the nice feeling when wandering in the streets (漫步在街頭上) with hands in pockets.



時代雜誌真是棒
TIMES is probably the best distributed in the world

Fri. 8th Mar., 1991. 20. Fine.

TIMES is a very popular magazine indeed. It is mainly devoted to current world news. I have just bought one. It gives me the up-to-date (即時的) information of the biggest event in recent decades (近幾十年), the Gulf War (海灣戰爭).

This magazine always presents its materials (材料) in a nice way with attractive photographs which will greatly arouse (提起) the readers' interests. Even the advertisements are beautifully designed and it is simply (簡直) a pleasure to look at them.

It is thin and extremely flexible (富彈性) that you can bend it in any way without leaving folding lines. This unique character makes it easy to be carried.

According to the cover, TIMES is printed in twenty one languages. I think it is probably the best distributed magazine (發行) in the world.

 



四百米賽跑我跑第尾
I came last in the event of 400 meter run

Sat. 9th Mar., 1991. 20. Sunny.

I came last in the event (賽事) of 400 meter run in the University Sports Day this morning.

I was nearly out of breath (斷氣) when I reached the finishing point, partly owing to the fact that I never practice running and partly because I slept very late preparing for my mid-term examinations last night.

The sports day, or other activities, should not be held at this busy time when everybody has examinations or tests.

A lot of people, including me, were holding books before steeping in the running track and went home immediately after the all the events were over. While I was running, my mind was thinking what were the differences between the musical style of the Burgundians and the Franco-Netherlanders. It seemed that nobody enjoyed the games.

Still, I am quite happy to have that experience.

 



城市論壇
The City Forum

Sun. 10th Mar., 1991. 19. Cloudy.

The City Forum held on Sundays is quite a popular live TV program for Hong Kong people to talk about the current hot event.

The most controversial issue (最爭議的問題) of the week will be discussed there. Today's topic is about the District Board Election.

Leading scholars (學者) or experts (專家) on the topic will be invited to speak- openly and freely what they think and feel. It doesn't matter whether their speeches for or against the topic.

Citizens can also have opportunities to give their opinions.

There is a young man who takes part every Sunday and always sits in the front role. He seems to be an all-rounded man and is eager to speak every time whatever the topic is.



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