Rachmaninoff : Piano Concerto No2 in C minor
拉克曼尼羅夫:C 小調第二鋼琴協奏曲
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曲式 (Form):作曲家作曲,必定先在程示部奏出 (Announce) 主題 (Theme),然後按某種曲式把主題剝皮拆骨,
切碎重組,重組切碎,在各種不同的情況下發展 (Develop),然後把主題重現 (Recapitulation) 而形成樂章。
其中的手法有兩種:1. 外在的 (Surface Structure): 換音色和變節奏;在不同的樂器 (一或多種)上演奏主題,好像給主題新的打扮。
2. 內在的 (Deep Structure): 和聲、對位 (Counterpoint),調性 (Tonality);把主題 (局部或全部) 在不同的調子和方式發展
(轉調 Modulation,包括親戚調 'Related Keys' 和 遠房調 'Remote Keys'),以求新鮮和變化。

「內在的」教不來;大家先來學習欣賞「外在的」一切:捕捉主題。各種風格如下:
巴哈穩重、莫扎特輕快、貝多芬奔放、布拉姆斯沉鬱、柴可夫司基華麗,德布西鬆脆,史特拉文司基辛辣,Alben Berg 艱澀;
以下為閣下介紹 Rachmaninoff「含蓄」(風格): Opus 18 鋼琴協奏曲 No 2 in C minor (a very popular piano concerto)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEGOihjqO9w&feature=player_detailpage
(Copy this link to your browser.)

 

Pianist:Anna Fedorova
1st Movement:Moderato (中板): C minor

協奏曲以一小段 ( 8小 節 ) 近乎靜止 (Motionless) 的鋼琴引子開始:

 

這短短的引子似乎清簡而平靜,看真一些,其實內藏暗湧;花點筆墨為修作曲的同學做「內在的」分析,該是蠻有意思的事。
1). 和聲:iv (sub-dominant chord: F minor; base: Root ostinato) --->--------->------>---->---V (dominant: G)--> | i (tonic: C minor)
2). Rachmaninoff 在下屬和弦 (iv) 的中間強調 主調音 (tonic note: C),更在 C音上加一條半音的移動線 (chromatic line):
C > D flat > D > E flat > E flat > E flat > D > D flat (紅色的音符),故意讓移動的半音 (chromatic movement) 與 主音 (C) 和下屬音 ( F)
造成渾濁的撞擊 (muddy crash) 效果,其間產生的緊張度 (tension) 就是推動音樂前進的動力。作者的第一個目的站
3). 是第八小節最後的 屬音 (dominant: G note),之後便圓順地進入主調 (C minor)。在急如雨下的主調和弦(Tonic Chord)的
4). 琶音 (arpeggio) 伴奏下,渾圓的絃樂在中低音區拉出以下第一主題:

由 0.36 秒至 1.03 秒:

 

此作品的調性明確 ( Tonal, no ambiguous area),兩個主題的旋律都優美而處於可唱的音域;大家可以跟著弦樂認熟或 (最好) 唱熟它:
C minor:
||: l - - t | l - - t | l - - s | f s m - | l t d t | d - - t | l - s - | s f m - : || (由頭重複‥‥‥ )

( 這個主題會令人全身起雞皮的 )

音樂奏到第 2分39秒,以「含蓄」聞名於世的第二主題「有保留地」在鋼琴上露出頭角 (以變奏的形式出現),一直去到4分22 秒:

 

由4分40秒左右開始,跟著鋼琴認熟或唱熟它吧 —— 親戚調 E flat Major (Relative Major);extremely lyrical (整首作品都是如泣如訴的):
| m s d' r' | m' 'f - m' | r' d' t d' | l t ~l ~t | | s - - f | s ~l f s | m - f s | l t - d | d d - r | m f - s |
( :'~' = flat, a half note lower;light color:d = tied note)

貝多芬曲風奔放,一去到盡頭,往往還在盡頭處澎湃一大番才帶你回到主題;
拉克曼尼羅夫 (Rachmaninoff) 則去一步退半步,處處含蓄,下下有保留,加上小調的調性,給人幾分哀怨纏綿之感。

6. 56 秒:第一主再於富節奏感的鋼琴伴奏下完整地在弦樂中奏出 ......

 

2nd Movement:Adagio sostenuto : C# minor → E major

 

 

3rd Movement:Allegro scherzando: E major → C minor → C major
(C# minor 和 E major 是親戚調 (關係大小調);但是,對主調 C minor 來說卻是遠房調 'Remote Keys'),須要花點氣力才能轉過去。

統中有散,散後歸統
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More deep structure description of this work from the web: Wikipedia
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The work is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B flat (I mov.) and A (II & III mov.), 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in B flat , 3 trombones (2 tenor, 1 bass), tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, solo piano, and strings.
It is written in three-movement concerto form.

I : C minor

The opening movement begins with a series of bell-like tollings on the piano that build tension, eventually climaxing in the introduction of the main theme. In this first section, the orchestra carries the Russian-character melody while the piano makes an accompaniment made of rapid oscillating arpeggios (鐘擺式的琶音). After the statement of the long first theme, a quicker transition follows until the lyrical second theme, in E flat major (主調 C minor 的關係大調), is presented.

The agitated and unstable development borrows motives from both themes changing keys very often and giving the melody to different instruments while a new musical idea is slowly formed. The music builds in a gradual climax as if the first bars were to be repeated, but in the recapitulation the theme is presented as unique to the first statement.

While the orchestra restates the first theme, the piano, that in the other occasion had an accompaniment role, now plays the march-like theme that had been halfly presented in the development, thus making a considerable readjustment in the exposition, as the main theme, played by the orchestra has become an accompaniment. This is followed by a piano solo, which leads into a descending chromatic passage and concluding with an eerie French horn solo. From here the last minutes of the movement are placid until drawn into the agitated coda, and the movement ends in C minor fortissimo.

II : Adagio sostenuto – Piu animato – Tempo I: C sharp minor → E major

The second movement opens with a series of slow chords in the strings which modulate from the C minor of the previous movement to the E major of this movement. The piano enters, playing a simple arpeggiated figure. This opening piano figure was composed in 1891 as the opening of the Romance from Two Pieces For Six Hands. The main theme is initially introduced by the flute, before being developed by an extensive clarinet solo. The motif is passed between the piano and other soloists before the music accelerates to a short climax centred on the piano. The original theme is repeated, and the music appears to die away, finishing with just the soloist in E major.

III : Allegro scherzando: E major → C minor → C major

The last movement opens with a short orchestral introduction that modulates from E (the key of the previous movement) to C, before a piano solo leads to the statement of the agitated first theme. After the original fast tempo and musical drama ends, a lyrical theme is introduced by the oboe and violas. This second theme maintains the motif of the first movement's second theme. After a long period of development tension is built up considerably. Near the end, Rachmaninoff restates the second theme in loud, fortissimo orchestration. After this, a fast, ecstatic coda draws the piece to a close, ending in C major. ( 註 :同名的大小調都用同一個屬和弦:V;所以,小調的樂章以同名大調和弦作結是輕易而常見的;倒轉則沒有。)

理論為基礎,情感為表面:Nothing is accidental in Music。
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